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Area Employers Strategies
Any Engineering Discipline
  • Production
  • Sales and Marketing
  • Management
  • Consulting
  • Research and Development
  • Teaching
  • Law

Industry, Business,

Federal, state, and local government,

Colleges and universities

Obtain related experience through co-op or internships for business/industry-related career. MBA degree provides best opportunities in technical management. Obtain Ph.D. for optimal teaching and research careers. Develop strong verbal and written communication skills. Learn federal, state, and local government job application procedures.

  • Propulsion
  • Fluid Mechanics
  • Thermodynamics
  • Structures
  • Celestial Mechanics
  • Acoustics
  • Guidance and Control

Aircraft, guided missile, and space vehicle industries 

Communications equipment manufacturers

Commercial airlines

Federal government departments: Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Business and engineering firms

Discipline uses cutting edge technology to deal with challenges of aeronautics, space, mass transportation, environmental pollution, and medical science.Keep abreast of status of federal funding for defense and space programs.

Seek co-op opportunities. Develop effective verbal and written communication skills. Learn to work well within a team.

Biosystems Engineering
  • Natural Resources: Soil and Water
  • Conservation
  • International Consulting
  • Environmental Control
  • Agricultural Structures
  • Power and Machinery
    Electronic Systems
  • Food Engineering
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Engineering Technology

Technological agricultural industries

Land grant universities: Experimental farm stations, Research laboratories

Consulting firms

Equipment design, testing, and manufacturing firms

Equipment and food industries including processing, packaging, and storing

Quality control for food, feed, fiber, etc.

Biotechnology research firms

Foreign Service

A broad, basic engineering discipline with a close relationship to the environment, food production, and agricultural productivity.Participate in internship or co-op programs. Acquire strong computer skills.

Learn a foreign language for work in foreign service. Develop strong math and problem solving skills.

  • Bioengineering: Design, Development, Manufacturing
  • Medical Engineering: Instrumentation, Materials, Diagnostic/Therapeutic Devices, Artificial Organs, Medical Equipment
  • Rehabilitation Engineering
  • Bio-environmental Engineering

Manufacturers of medical and surgical devices

Hospitals and healthcare facilities

Federal government: Regulatory agencies, Veteran's Administration, National Institutes of Health, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)


Research facilities of educational and medical institutions

Discipline combines engineering and human anatomy to develop and maintain medical and healthcare systems and equipment. Develop strong team work skills. Many positions require a graduate or professional degree. Serves as a good background for medical school.

  • Administration
  • Design and Construction: Project Engineering, Control Systems, Field Engineering, Process Engineering,
  • Operations/Production
  • Environmental and Waste Management: Development, Design

Independent research institutes

Consulting organizations

Chemical industry including: Agricultural chemicals, Plastics, Industrial chemicals, Petroleum, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Food processing, Atomic energy development, Environmental

Federal government including: Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency

Manufacturing plants including automotive, airplane, paper, microelectronics, textiles, metals, rubber, food, and beverage

Combines science of chemistry with discipline of engineering to solve problems 

and develop efficiency.Develop exceptional interpersonal skills. Acquire technical work experience during college years.

  • Structural
  • Urban and Community Planning
  • Construction
  • Environmental
    Water Resources
  • Transportation and Pipeline
  • Geotechnical
    Photogrammetry,Surveying and Mapping
  • Materials

Construction industry

Engineering or architectural firms

Utility companies

Oil companies

Telecommunications businesses

Manufacturing companies

Consulting firms


State and federal government agencies

Broad discipline of "doers" providing service to the community through development and improvement. Works extensively with other professionals involved with the community. Provides opportunity to work outdoors.Learn 

to work well within a team. Develop strong communication and interpersonal skills. Develop physical stamina for outdoor work. Get experience in organizing and directing workers and materials. Ability to visualize objects in three dimensions is helpful. Demand has remained steady due to broad nature of discipline. States may require licensing or registration.


  • Power Electronics

  • Power Systems

  • Communications

  • Electronics

  • Control Systems

  • Digital Signal Processing

  • Microelectronics

  • Image Processing & Robotics

  • Computer Engineering

  • Plasma Engineering

  • Computer Vision

Manufacturing firms and industry including: Aeronautical/Aerospace, Automotive, Business machines, Professional and scientific equipment, Consumer products, Chemical and petrochemical, Computers, Construction, Defense, Electric utilities, Electronics, Environmental, Food and beverage, Glass, ceramics, and metals, Machine tools, Mining and metallurgy, Nuclear, Oceanography, Pulp and paper, Textiles, Transportation, Water and wastewater

Public utilities

Federal government including: Armed forces, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Institutes of Health, Bureau of Standards, Department of Defense, Various commissions

Consulting firms

Free-lance consulting

A field in touch with a wide and growing range of applications such as high speed and wireless communication, exploration of outer space, and a revolution in medical diagnosis and treatment.Develop effective verbal and written communication skills. Gain experience in team work. Acquire capacity for details. Develop interpersonal skills. Obtain research experience.


  • Operations Research

  • Applied Behavioral Science Systems

  • Manufacturing

  • Management

  • Information Engineering

  • Computer Systems Design and Development

Manufacturing industries

Accounting firms

Retail distribution organizations

Banks and financial institutions

Hospitals and healthcare organizations

Educational and public service agencies

Transportation industries

Construction industries

Public utilities

Electrical and electronics machinery industries

Consulting firms

Discipline links management and operations by improving productivity through a "big picture" approach; serves human needs and works with people 

Take courses in psychology, sociology and anthropology to learn more about people and how they behave. Earn an MBA for advancement in management or administration.

Material's science and Engineering

  • Metallurgy

  • Ceramics

  • Plastics/Polymers

  • Composites

  • Research

  • Extractive

  • Process

  • Applications

  • Management

  • Sales

  • Service

  • Consulting

Materials producing companies 

Manufacturing companies including automobiles, appliances, electronics, aerospace equipment, machinery, medicine 

Service companies including airlines, railroads, and utilities

Consulting firms

Government agencies: Department of Defense, National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) 

Research institutes


Studies properties of various types of materials and how they are made and behave under different conditions. Many positions require a graduate degree.

Some areas benefited by additional study in business administration, medicine, management and/or law. Develop good communication skills. Gain laboratory and research experience as an undergraduate.


  • Mechanical Power Generation: Internal Combustion Engines, Jet Engines, Steam Power Plants, Rockets, Energy

  • Utilization and Conservation

  • Thermal/Fluids: Thermodynamics, Environmental Control, Refrigeration, Instrumentation and Control

  • Machine Sciences: Mechanical Design, Manufacturing and Production, Robotics, Operation and Maintenance

Transportation: Automotive industry, aerospace industry, military laboratories

Utilities: Steam driven electric power stations

Equipment Design: Plants, Nuclear power stations

Electronics industry

Petro-Chemical: Drilling & production, plant operations

Manufacturing: Consumer products, chemical products, farm equipment, industrial equipment, paper and wood products, textile equipment

Consulting engineering firms

Takes broad outlook on solving complex problems. Involves design, development and production. Keeps pace with technology. Acts as an interface between society and technology. Obtain related experience through internships or co-op. Take additional courses in area(s) of interest. Develop strong interpersonal and communication skills.


  • Environment and Pollution

  • Health

  • Space Exploration

  • Consumer and Industrial

  • Power

  • Food Supply

  • Transportation

  • Water Supply

Electric and gas utility companies

Guided missile and space vehicle companies

Engineering consulting firms

Business services including medical industry

Manufacturers of nuclear power equipment

Research facilities

Military services

Defense manufacturers

Discipline studies basic components of neutrons, protons, electrons and all matter; deals with inanimate substances.

Engineering Science and Mechanics
  • Engineering Mechanics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computational Mechanics
  • Engineering Materials



Research organizations

Interdisciplinary program with broad training in engineering science, mathematics, and physical or biological science.

Strategies for placement in Engineering

  • Bachelor's degree provides wide range of career opportunities in industry, business, and government.
  • Graduate degrees offer more opportunities for career advancement.
  • Bachelor's degree is good background for pursuing technical graduate degrees as well as professional degrees in Business Administration, Medicine or Law.
  • Related work experience obtained through co-op, internships, part-time or summer jobs, or regular employment is extremely beneficial.
  • Develop computer expertise within field.
  • Engineers need to think in scientific and mathematical terms, have ability to study data, sort out important facts, solve problems, and be logical thinkers. Creativity is useful.
    Other helpful traits include intellectual curiosity, technical aptitude, perseverance, ability to communicate and work well with others, a commitment to teamwork, and a basic understanding of the economic and environmental context in which engineering is practiced.
  • Develop excellent verbal and written communications skills including presentation and technical report writing.
  • All states and the District of Columbia require registration of engineers whose work may affect the life, health, or safety of the public.
  • Professional or technical societies confer certification in some areas.
  • Join related professional organizations.
  • Most fields offer overseas opportunities with businesses or government agencies.
  • Because of rapid changes in most engineering fields, both continued education and keeping abreast of new developments are very important.
  • Most states require an EIT (Engineer-In-Training) test before taking a state examination to become a Professional Engineer (PE).
  • Search the Internet for additional information about individual disciplines.

Prepared by the Career Planning staff of Career Services at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (2005) UTK is an EEO/AA/Title VI/Title IX/Section
504/ADA /ADEA Employer.